- What was the presence of women in empirical research and writings produced in the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s? Why?
It was males who were apt as risk-takers and achievers in the community. The women have been portrayed as the guardians of the community tradition. They provide stability to the western men headed to cities, and children are carried along with the r parents and wives accompanying their husbands in migration. Migration research disregards women’s contribution to economic, political, and social life. The researchers of the days designed the migration studies that included only males as their subjects.
- What was the presence of women in empirical research and writings produced in the 1970s and 1980s? Why?
The male bias existed in the works of the immigration historians of the time. The feminist scholarship gained a foothold in migration studies. The researchers attempted to fill the gap of female discrimination in immigration documents over the decades. The new trend treated gender as a variable, and women immigrants were equally documented. It has created more data from empirical studies on women during the times. It documents high female labor force participation rates far exceeding rates before emigration.
- What was the presence of women in empirical research and writings produced in the 1990s? Why?
The presence of women in empirical research produced in the 1990s began to explore changing politico-economic conditions in labor exporting and labor importing societies differently affecting men and women.
The presence of women in the 1990s was documented as the female mass movements were the reason for migration. The larger continent-wide transition from an agrarian-feudal mode to an industrial capitalist economy in parts of the world created more women to immigrate than men. The female created the migration and chain these are documented as female mass movements in the decades.
- What are Pessar’s suggestions for Endangering Migration Theory and Research?
For several decades the US has attracted proportionally more female migrants than other labor-importing countries. Export-led production in third-world countries carries different implications for female and male workers. The female migration to the United States accelerated economic restriction and growth in intensive female industries, mainly healthcare, service, microelectronics, and apparel manufacturing. Women are suitable for dead-end jobs, and the disparity between women’s and men’s labor has created various opportunities for both segments. Men dominate better-paying jobs. The men migrated from India and Japan to the US, and they got educated. The women failed to achieve education and occupy high-rank jobs like men. The migration studies open how gender operates, the economic displacement, and the demand for immigrant laborers.
- According to Pessar, it is important to include households and social networks as dimensions of endangered immigration.
It helps to explain the factors that affect migration and the condition of those who exist as immigrants. Households have been assumed as an important place with transnational migration theory. The household members develop economic strategies that transcend national labor markets and pursue social reproduction strategies. It creates new dimensions for the families as a whole.
- According to Pessar, how should these constructs of households and social networks be further refined based on existing research findings?
It requires rethinking as the immigrant family in the US is an adaptive social form. The supply and demand of immigrant labor and the role of migrant households and social networks in the migration process will inspire the research to explore the relationship between migration and women’s emancipation. Much of the research on social networks remained indifferent to gender. It needs progress in exploring the multiple ways in which gender configures and organizes immigrants’ social networks.
- According to Peesar, what does the research show about migration and women’s emancipation? (what emancipation?)
The wage share of the women in the household influences her role in the family. The women have a better opportunity to acquire greater personal autonomy. If the wages are similar to the husband’s, she gets more freedom. The migration does create an opportunity for change for the women immigrants. The opportunities in the new land allow the women to adapt to the situation and find new freedoms to enjoy that arise from the family’s migration.
Emancipation is women’s progress from the patriarchal society and the family’s clutches. It indicates the betterment of women’s status through migration.
- What does Pessar have to say about Settlement return and transnationality?
The women are more prone to spending the money in the immigrant country for furnishing their homes. The men are saving their money to go for possible reentry to their native country. The women favor the settlement in the country. The men are always thinking about the possible reentry to the country. The women are considered passive in the community for their transnational identity. The men are considered active in participating and grouping the meeting to claim their rights in the country.
- According to pessary, to what degree have gained in female power been achieved by immigrant women?
When the unemployment has intensified on male counterparts gives more job opportunities for the female in the family. The double income of husband and wife fuelled the households during the harsh phases of economic struggles. It gives the immigrant women to head the household and thus gain grounds on female power. The employment opportunities for females were higher than that for males. It provides more power to the females in their patriarchal families.
- What does Pessar have to say about Immigrant families as bastions of resistance?
Immigrants in the new country struggle to earn their bread. The males are scapegoats in the country for drugs and crimes. The immigrant families combined work to strengthen their families. Once they have a house, the women will change and take on household duties. They are resistant to becoming further independent like normal citizens. The bastion of resistance is due to the subordination of immigrants by race and ethnicity. The majority’s notions and prejudices against them keep them as a community that shrinks within their households. They are here to survive and don’t want to exploit the country, as they think it creates further rivalry.